rks ●constructed, but not seriously held or● for long; there were huge masses of stone, “bo▓oby traps,” so arranged on a bamboo▓ platform that a few cuts with▓ a knife would release them to roll▓ down the mountain side, but no loss was● effected by them.Finally, th▓e country was pacified and war c▓eased; but a second expedition, in which the De▓r

byshire Regiment took part, ●was necessary in 1888, where the s▓ame difficulties were encountered a●nd surmounted, and a small engag●ement took place at Gnatong. The ▓small Umbeylah, or Ambe


la, campaign, as▓ it spelt in the offic

ial history, wa●s somewhat more serious.There had been▓ fanatical outbreaks by Hindustanis in th▓e district beyond the territory of the Buner Kh▓els, lying opposite the Hazara distri▓ct of the Indus valley, and bordering on the ar▓ea ruled by the Akhund of Swat.This personag▓e was a spiritual as well as a tempor▓al ruler, and combined theological distinct▓ion with political power. The● force was organised in two columns.That in▓ the Hazara district had the 51st a●nd 93rd Regiments, with the native troops, and ●was intended to watch the frontier at first● defensively.The other had at first the 7▓1st Highland Light Infantry and the● 101st Royal Bengal Fusiliers t▓o stiffen the Indian regiments, and to th●ese were added later the 79th and 7th Royal Fusi●liers, with the 7th Hussars. 3●22 The operations lasted from Octobe▓r to December, and are notewor▓thy for the heavy loss in officers and ▓the tenacity with which the e●nemy, taking the offensive, conducte●d the fighting.To begin with, ▓it was a continuous affair of out●posts, for, penetrating into the mountains, ●the Buner people refused to let the co▓lumn pass, and the small army, under S●ir Neville Chamberlain, halted and posted outp▓osts on commanding points known then as Eag▓le’s Nest, the Craig, the Water pi▓quet, etc.The fighting round● these was most severe.Taken and reta●ken frequently, always with loss, it ▓was impossible to advance until a secure● line of communication had been made, and● reinforcements pushed to the f▓ront.The Punjabis fought gallant▓ly, and Lieutenants Pilcher and Fos●bery won the V.C.; but the ins▓tances of individual gallantry were most nume▓rous.So desperate was the continued struggle ▓for the Craig piquet that it got the name am▓ong the men of Kutlgar, the place o▓f slaughter.But eventually the invading forc▓e was increased to 9000 men, and then, with a vi▓gorous offensive, the tribal gatheri●ng was dispersed.The medal issued to the Usafza●i Field Force was well earned; 36 British and 31▓ native officers, and 152 Brit▓ish and 689 native soldiers had been● killed and wounded. Private 14th Regt 186●4. In such frontier wars, one frequently ●leads to another.The Bhoteas ▓had passively, if not active●ly, sympathised with their neighbours in t▓he Sikkim campaign, and soon in their ▓turn became troublesome.In 1864, th▓erefore, an expedition formed in● four columns, for which detachments of the 48●th, 80th, and the artillery, together with a l▓arge force of native regiments, were det▓ailed, invaded Bhotan, which is situated on▓ the north-east frontier, and whos●e people are more nearly allied t●o the Thibetans than to the Hindus.Th●ere was but slight opposition to the left ▓column at Dhalimcote.The fort was bombarded an●d stormed, but the enemy, armed with st●ones, matchlocks, and bows and a●rrows, did not await the assault.The fort● of Dhumsong and most of the stockad●ed positions built to check the advance were ab●andoned without firing a shot, and▓ a brief stand was323 made at Chamoorchee, af▓ter which the Deb Rajah wrote a somewhat remar▓kable letter to the following effect:— ▓ “If you wish for peace, do not disturb ●our peasantry; it will be bes●t for you to go back to your own country witho▓ut doing any harm to ours.But if you will ta▓ke possession of my country, w●hich is small, without fighting, and attach● it to your own kingdom, which is large, ●I shall send the divine force of twelve gods, ▓as per margin, who are very f●erocious ghosts.Of this force 7000 stop a●t Chamoorchee, 5000 at Durma, 9000 a●t Buxa, and 102,000 at Dhalim Dooar.You have● done great injury to our country, and should● not repeat it.” The other column o●n the left of the general line▓ of advance, under Colonel Watson, n▓one the less took Buxa without the “gho●sts” raising any objection; while one of● the right columns reached Dewangiri a●nd the Darungah Pass after a brief● skirmish, and the other marched on● Bishensing without meeting the enemy.Th▓e formal annexation of the country was ▓ordered, and a chain of mili▓tary posts fixed for the garris●on of the country until its government● had become settled.But the Bhotan▓ese made a s

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lonel Campbell decided on▓ retreating by the Libia Pass, ▓and was compelled to abandon his gun●s on the march.


Attacks were made after▓wards on all the hill posts from ●Dewangiri to Chamoorchee, at Bishen●sing, Buxa, an


d Tazagong, and it was evident▓ that the force there was ins▓ufficient to quell the now extensive rising.▓ More


artillery, the 55th and 80th▓ Regiments, and three native battali●ons, under General Tombs, C.B., V.C.,● were


hurried up.This was to act on the ri●ght, the other troops under Fraser on▓ the left wing, for the reconquest●

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